Damping-off diseases (Pythium spp. Rhizoctonia solani )
The disease is caused by Pythium aphanidermatum, Rhizoctonia solani and Aphanomyces sp. Seeds may rot in the soil before emergence (pre-emergence damping-off) or seedlings may exhibit stem canker above the soil line and/or root necrosis. Affected seedlings eventually wilt (post-emergence damping-off). The disease is favoured by high soil water content and low soil temperatures. Also dense planting without sufficient aeration enhances disease development.
- Use disease-free seeds.
- Avoid over watering.
- Avoid dense planting.